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 Handbook :
Chapter - 6
Evaluation and Grading

Assessment Scheme

At KRM the method of imparting education incorporates the concept of continuous internal assessment. All subjects are conducted and assessed on a continuous basis by the faculty who teaches these courses. The academic performance of students is assessed by the faculty through various components as given in table 1 below.  These components are evenly spread out in the semester thereby giving the students ample opportunity to exhibit their knowledge and skills and be assessed thoroughly.  Such continuous assessment also encourages systematic and continuous study by students. The weightage of different components of assessment is mentioned in table 1 below:

The individual weightage for each component may vary depending upon the nature of the subject. A faculty should normally plan 2-3 components including a class test for the continuous assessment.

The assessment scheme and components of evaluation are developed by the faculty in such a way that it makes the subject more meaningful and brings the students closer to real life situations. Through these components the students would be judged for various characteristics namely:

  1. knowledge of concepts
  2. application of principles
  3. creativity and originality
  4. decision-making ability
  5. documentation and data handling
  6. self expression and
  7. leadership.

Guidelines for evaluation of specific components are given in the next section.
Just as evaluation is done in a continuous manner, feedback to the students regarding their performance shall also be given in timely manner. The answer scripts, properly evaluated shall be shown to the students and clarification, if any, is given. Wherever possible, the performance of the students in the evaluation components shall be discussed in the class giving as much detail as possible like the highest, lowest and average performance.

Since KRM has a very transparent system of evaluation, the students are shown the answer books after being evaluated by the faculty. This gives the students an opportunity to interact with the faculty in case they feel that the marks awarded are not reflecting the real performance. Thus, there is no requirement of rechecking and revaluation of answer books.

Guidelines to Assessment

The evaluation scheme suggested here provides guidelines on what the faculty looks for in these instruments and also the objectives they are meant to serve. Hence, these guidelines would help students to perform better in the evaluation components.

Project Report

A Project Report is a written presentation of the work done by the students on a given assignment. It is important to bear in mind that even though the project report is submitted only at the end of any given assignment, in reality it is a culmination of continuous efforts on the part of the students.

The project report is judged for the following points:

  1. Knowledge and comprehension of the problem
  2. Setting the objectives of the study
  3. Ability to analyse the problem
  4. Logical path followed
  5. Concluding remarks and future scope of the problem
  6. Organisation of the report and data handling


A seminar/viva is held on the project/assignment given to the students. The students are expected to defend the work done by them on the project. The seminar/viva follows a question-answer session based on the work presented.

The Seminar/Viva tests the students in terms of the following:

  1. Knowledge of basic concepts and physical principles and ability to apply them effectively.
  2. Additional knowledge acquired
  3. Ability to analyse a given problem or situation logically
  4. Effective verbal communication
  5. Self-reliance and moderation

Case Discussion and Analysis

The Case Method assists students in identifying typical problems in specific functional areas of management. It is expected that students will study cases, comprehend the business situation, analyse the problems and come up with alternatives/solutions and then discuss the case in class. A good case is a very powerful instrument in evaluating a student as it puts the student into the position of the real-world managers who must face the challenges of decision-making. A case can be evaluated either by asking students to prepare a written report of the case analysis or through discussion of the case in class.

Written Analysis of Cases

The over-all criteria for a written report of a case analysis should be the clarity with which the recommendations as well as the reasons behind the recommendations are put forth by the students. This can be achieved by asking a student to prepare a summary statement that will have emphasis on the recommendations made by him/her.  The students may also be encouraged to add newspaper articles describing circumstances pertinent to the case situation as appendices.  In essence, the case analysis should test the student in terms of the following:

  1. Knowledge and comprehension of the problem/topic introduced in the case
  2. Ability to diagnose the problem
  3. Presentation of important facts and forecasts
  4. Alternative actions that might be taken with predicted consequences of the alternatives
  5. Description in detail of the recommended action and its implementation

Case Discussion

The case discussion may be conducted by forming groups of students. These discussions give the faculty powerful channels for improving the communication skills of the students. The faculty must observe the contributions of every member of the group and see that every member gets equal opportunity to present his/her views. In such a discussion the faculty evaluates the students on the following characteristics:

  1. Knowledge and comprehension of the case
  2. Ability to diagnose the problem
  3. Level of participation, moderation and initiation
  4. Generation of alternatives and their probable consequences
  5. Ability to lead the discussion in the right direction and ability to improve the discussion


The Quiz is designed to assess students in terms of their conceptual understanding and the skills acquired by them during the course.

A Quiz is designed to test the students in terms of the following

  1. Knowledge of basic concepts and principles
  2. Additional knowledge acquired
  3. Ability to apply the knowledge of the basic concepts and principles
  4. Ability to analyse a given problem or situation
  5. Logical path followed in problem solving

Written Tests

Written tests are conducted to evaluate students in terms of their understanding of the concepts, and principles introduced in the subject and their ability to present their knowledge and ideas on paper. Normally at least one written test of 20% weightage will be conducted after 40-50% of the syllabus is completed. The comprehensive test conducted at the end of the term covers the entire syllabus for the course and will have atleast 50% weightage.

Grading Policy

Every subject undertaken by the student terminates in an outcome which is a letter grade earned. At the end of the semester the faculty awards letter grades A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, or F to students based on performance of the student in relation to the performance of the students in the class. The total marks secured by a student in a subject for the various evaluation components including End-Semester Examination are considered for award of suitable grade in the subject.

The letter grades have points associated with them in a quantified hierarchy. The letter grades, their applicability and connotation are given in table 2 as below:

In order to arrive at these letter grades, the total marks in a particular subject for all the students in the class are tabulated in a descending order list (equivalently a histogram). The performance of the class is analysed in terms of average, highest and lowest marks and dividing lines between the clusters of students. Gaps and dips between the clusters and the nature of the clusters will guide in drawing the dividing lines between the grades. In a normal class of large size, the dividing line between B and B - bands usually indicates the average marks. This is not a hard and fast rule and the exceptions may arise in cases of small classes, skewed histogram etc.

Borderline cases are decided on a case by case basis keeping in view the consistency of performance, progressive improvement, regularity in attendance, class participation and exceptionally good performance in the End-Semester examination.

Repetition of Courses

A student who is still in the process of completing the requirements of the Programme, may at his own option, or as required as per the make-up policy, repeat a subject which he has already cleared with an intention of improving his grade. In such a case the following conditions will apply:

  1. The subject in which the student wants to re-appear is part of the current programme
  2. The subject does not clash with other subject time table of the student
  3. The student has paid the additional fee, as decided by the Institute, for the subject in which he/she wants to re-appear
  4. The student can appear in supplementary examinations to be held maximum during a period of three years in case of PGPMS programme and five years in case of DBA programme.

Promotion Criteria

To be eligible to be promoted to the next year of a programme, a student cannot have ‘F’ grade in more than one subject in an academic year and should have SGPA of 5.00 on a 10 point scale in each of the semesters in that academic year.

The supplementary examinations will be held after every six months. A student can re-appear as many times for a particular subject as may be the occurrence of the supplementary examination, however, the limit for completion of PGPMS programme is 3 years from the date of registration for the programme and it will be 5 years in case of DBA programme.

The terms and conditions for re-appearing in the supplementary examinations shall be the same as mentioned in ‘Make-up Policy’ in the Chapter-3 of the handbook.

The Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA)

The CGPA is used to describe overall performance of a student in all subjects in which he/she is awarded letter grades, since entry into the Institute up to the latest term. It is the
weighted average of grade points of all letter grades received by the student from his/her entry into the Institute and is computed as follows:

CGPA =  U1G1 + U2G2+ U3G3  ……
                     U1 + U2 + U3+ …..

Where U1, U2, U3… denote credit units  associated with the subjects taken by the students and G1, G2, G3…are the grade points of the letter grades awarded in the respective subjects.


The integrity and fairness in the examinations is of paramount importance for an institution. To ensure this, the students are expected to follow the following guidelines without fail:

  • Students should occupy their seats 15 minutes before the commencement of the examinations and as per the seating plan.
  • No student is permitted to enter the examination hall after the commencement of the examination. In exceptional cases, the candidate may be permitted if he reports not later than 15 minutes after the commencement of the examination.
  • Students are prohibited from talking to each other, copying from others or allowing others to copy from them, taking or giving any other kind of assistance or communicating with a person in or outside the examination hall. If they are found violating these rules and/or committing any other malpractice and/or behaving in an indisciplined manner or causing nuisance, disturbance to other students, they will at once be expelled from the examination hall. Severe action will be taken against the students resorting to unfair practices. Hence, all the students are strictly advised not to resort to any unfair practice in or outside the examination hall.
  • Whenever a student is found resorting to unfair practices, his answer book will be confiscated and a new answer book will be issued and the student will be allowed to continue writing the examination.
  • Students are allowed to bring and use all types of non-scientific calculators in the examinations. However, no computers (including PALMTOP and LAPTOP), Pagers, Cell Phones etc. are permitted inside the examination hall
  • Students must bring their own stationery other than answer book (including calculators) required during the examinations. Borrowing and lending of these items is strictly prohibited.
  • In case students have any queries/observations about question papers or any other aspects of examinations, they should file a written complaint with the Academic Office and should not indulge into any discussions, arguments or misbehaviour with the invigilators. This may lead to disciplinary action against the student concerned.
  • Students will not be allowed to leave the examination hall before half of the time is over, even if they have completed the paper.
  • Students will not be allowed to go to toilets etc. before one hour is over. Only one student will go out at a time. Also they cannot go out of the hall for more than two minutes at a time and this movement shall be recorded with the invigilator (s) on duty.
  • Also, the students will not be allowed to go out for toilets etc. when one hour or less is left for the examination to get over.
  • When the allotted time is over, they should stop writing and hand-over the answer book to the invigilator.


Grade Sheet

A student’s grades, reports, accumulated units and SGPA/CGPA at the end of every semester will be recorded on the grade sheet, a copy of which will be issued to the student.


Chronologically organised information from the grade sheets of a student with the necessary explanation constitutes his transcript that is issued at the time the student leaves KRM or at an intermediate point on request.

Provisional Certificate

A student, who fulfils the graduation criteria, will be given a provisional certificate before the formal convocation.

The Diploma

Students who fulfil the completion criteria of the programme will be awarded the Diploma i.e. Advance Diploma Programme in Management Studies or the Post Graduate Programme in Management Studies as applicable by the Institute.

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